## CEMC Fryer, Galois, Hypatia Contests: Examining the Syllabus

The Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS) organizes the Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing (CEMC) contests, including the Fryer, Galois, and Hypatia competitions. These contests are designed to challenge and inspire students, fostering a deeper appreciation for mathematical problem-solving. In this article, we will delve into the syllabus of each contest, providing insights into the topics covered and the skills required for success.

## I. Fryer Contest: Exploring Fundamental Concepts

### A. Number Theory:

1. Divisibility rules and properties.

2. Prime factorization and its applications.

3. Modular arithmetic.

### B. Algebra:

1. Manipulation of algebraic expressions.

2. Solving linear and quadratic equations.

3. Systems of linear equations.

### C. Geometry:

1. Properties of geometric shapes (angles, triangles, quadrilaterals).

2. Area and perimeter calculations.

3. Congruence and similarity.

### D. Combinatorics:

1. Basic counting principles.

2. Permutations and combinations.

3. Introduction to probability.

### E. Logic and Reasoning:

1. Logical reasoning and problem-solving skills.

2. Application of mathematical concepts in real-world scenarios.

## II. Galois Contest: Advancing to Intermediate Concepts

### A. Number Theory:

1. Modular arithmetic and congruences.

2. Diophantine equations.

3. Fermat's Little Theorem and Euler's Totient Function.

### B. Algebra:

1. Polynomial factorization and roots.

2. Systems of linear and quadratic equations.

3. Introduction to inequalities.

### C. Geometry:

1. Coordinate geometry.

2. Advanced properties of geometric shapes.

3. Trigonometry and its applications.

### D. Combinatorics:

1. Advanced counting techniques.

2. Inclusion-Exclusion principle.

3. Graph theory basics.

### E. Logic and Reasoning:

1. Inductive and deductive reasoning.

2. Mathematical proofs and arguments.

## III. Hypatia Contest: Mastering Advanced Mathematical Concepts

### A. Number Theory:

1. Cryptography and modular arithmetic.

2. Chinese Remainder Theorem.

3. Advanced Diophantine equations.

### B. Algebra:

1. Advanced polynomial factorization.

2. Systems of equations with multiple variables.

3. Complex numbers.

### C. Geometry:

1. Three-dimensional geometry.

2. Conic sections and advanced properties of shapes.

3. Non-Euclidean geometry.

### D. Combinatorics:

1. Generating functions.

2. Pigeonhole principle and Ramsey theory.

3. Advanced graph theory.

### E. Calculus Concepts:

1. Limits and continuity.

2. Derivatives and integrals.

3. Applications of calculus in problem-solving.

### F. Logic and Reasoning:

1. Advanced proof techniques.

2. Mathematical logic and set theory.

## Conclusion:

The Fryer, Galois, and Hypatia contests organized by the CEMC present a gradual progression of mathematical challenges, encouraging students to explore fundamental concepts, advance to intermediate topics, and finally, master advanced mathematical principles. Students preparing for these contests can enhance their problem-solving skills by engaging with the diverse topics within each syllabus. By mastering the concepts outlined in the syllabi, participants not only excel in the contests but also develop a strong foundation for future mathematical pursuits, nurturing a lifelong appreciation for the beauty and complexity of mathematics.