AP Economics: Key Concepts and Practice Questions

The Advanced Placement (AP) Economics exams, which include both Microeconomics and Macroeconomics, are designed to assess your understanding of economic principles and concepts. To excel in these exams, it's essential to grasp the key concepts and practice extensively. In this article, we'll explore the core concepts in AP Economics and provide practice questions to help you prepare effectively.

 Key Concepts in AP Economics


1. Supply and Demand: 

Understand the fundamentals of supply and demand, including how changes in price and other factors affect market equilibrium.

2. Consumer Behavior: 

Learn about utility, preferences, and the factors that influence consumer choices.

3. Producer Behavior: 

Explore production costs, short-run and long-run decisions, and the concept of profit maximization.

4. Market Structures: 

Study different market structures, such as perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly.

5. Factor Markets: 

Understand the labor and capital markets, including how wages and interest rates are determined.

6. Income Distribution: 

Examine the factors that influence income distribution, including wage differentials and poverty.

7. Market Failures: 

Learn about externalities, public goods, and the role of government in addressing market failures.


1. Macroeconomic Indicators: 

Understand how to measure economic performance using indicators like Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation rates, and unemployment rates.

2. Economic Growth: 

Explore the factors that contribute to economic growth and the consequences of economic growth.

3. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply: 

Study the AD-AS model and how it relates to short-run and long-run macroeconomic equilibrium.

4. Fiscal Policy: 

Examine government spending and taxation policies and their impact on the economy.

5. Monetary Policy: 

Learn about the role of the Federal Reserve, money supply, and interest rates in monetary policy.

6. International Trade: 

Understand concepts like balance of trade, exchange rates, and their impact on a country's economy.

7. Economic Development: 

Explore the challenges and strategies for economic development in both developed and developing countries.

 Practice Questions for AP Economics


1. Question 1: 

If the price of smartphones increases, what will likely happen to the quantity demanded for smartphones?

    a) Increase  

    b) Decrease  

    c) Stay the same  

    d) Depend on the income level of consumers

2. Question 2: 

In a perfectly competitive market, what happens in the long run if firms are making economic losses?

    a) Firms exit the market  

    b) Firms increase production  

    c) Firms reduce prices  

    d) Government intervenes

3. Question 3: 

If the government imposes a tax on a product, what is likely to happen to the market price and quantity?

    a) Price increases, quantity increases  

    b) Price increases, quantity decreases 

    c) Price decreases, quantity increases  

    d) Price decreases, quantity decreases


1. Question 4: 

If the government increases government spending during a recession, what is the likely effect on the overall economy?

    a) It will exacerbate the recession  

    b) It will help the economy recover from the recession  

    c) It will have no impact on the economy  

    d) It will lead to inflation

2. Question 5: 

When the central bank decreases the interest rate, what is the expected effect on investment and consumption in the economy?

    a) Investment and consumption decrease  

    b) Investment and consumption increase  

    c) Investment decreases, consumption increases  

    d) Investment increases, consumption decreases

3. Question 6: 

If a country's imports exceed its exports, what is the trade balance called?

    a) Trade surplus  

    b) Trade deficit  

    c) Balanced trade  

    d) Trade equilibrium


Preparation for AP Economics exams requires a solid grasp of the key concepts in both Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Regular practice with a variety of questions and problems is crucial to your success. Remember to review your answers and understand the rationale behind them. This will help you perform well on the exams and demonstrate your knowledge of economic principles and their real-world applications.